Author: petercarrjones

Peter Carr Jones is an Historian living in Washington, DC.

Historic Homebrewing Class

We’ve recently started a historic homebrewing class at the Hill Center. The first class in late June was a huge success. It was a ton of fun to teach people about history while brewing and tasting a beer similar to what George Washington would have enjoyed. The bubbling homebrew kettle makes a great stand in for the fire around which we can tell stories about the past.

Afterwards, the Smithsonian Side Door podcast found out about what we do and our class. We served some historic beer and spoke to them briefly. That episode just published and we are truly honored to be featured on it with some beer history legends.

For any listeners who might be interested, we’re including our take on George Washington’s Small Beer Recipe. Mind you, our recipe was more of an attempt to recreate a small beer as consumed by the wealthier (especially women and children) at Mount Vernon and likely made by enslaved persons on the estate. GW’s earlier 1757 recipe was described in our class (and by others) as a marching beer or beer for troop use due to its very high molasses content and quick ferment period. Our recipe, with its higher barley content, is more recognizable to modern beer drinkers.

The recipe is designed for the homebrew novice, but all skill levels will enjoy brewing this historic beverage. If any of this sounds interesting, please consider joining our next class at the Hill Center on July 23. We’ll be talking about and brewing a Pre-Prohibition ale.

George Washington’s “To Brew A Small Beer”

Michael Stein and Peter Jones


  • 4 lb Light Dry Malt Extract
  • 1 lb flaked oats
  • .5 lb two row malt
  • 12 oz molasses
  • 1 total ounce of cluster hops


  1. Heat 3 gallons of water to 155 degrees.
  2. Add flaked oats and .5 two row malt in malt bag to water. Steep for 45 minutes.
  3. Remove grain bag. Start heating to boil. Add “first wort hop addition” .25 oz Cluster hops to kettle
  4. Stir occasionally as rise to boil. Add Dry Malt Extract. Note time of first boil.
  5. Add .25 oz Cluster hops 30 minutes after first boil.
  6. 45 minutes after boil- let chiller sanitize, add molasses.
  7. 55 minutes after boil, add .5 oz Cluster Hops.
  8. 60 minutes after boil, turn off heat. Add one gallon of water.
  9. Start chilling. Chill to below 90 degrees. Take specific gravity reading. Add water until you hit your desired gravity reading.
  10. Transfer to carboy, add yeast to wort (under 80 degrees, lower the better). Install airlock.
  11. Relax, Don’t worry, have a homebrew.
  12. Check fermentation after 1-2 weeks for krausen or lack thereof. Check gravity.
  13. Check gravity 3 days later. If the same, you can safely bottle.

Session 114: Homebrewing Pilsners – Pete’s Take

There’s a cliche among American craft beer fans that you get pulled in by hops and IPAs, you migrate to either sour beers or maybe imperial stouts, and eventually have the palate sophistication to appreciate pilsner’s subtle interplay of hops and malt. There’s a symmetry to this sophistication since most imbibers start with “pilsner” (in the McLager sense)

Homebrewing is less of a circle in this regard as nearly no one starts brewing macro-style lagers before craft beer. In my experience with the DC Homebrewers Club, brewers start with ales (hoppy or malty) and graduate to the much more demanding pilsners, where any fermentation flaw is magnified (again with a well coached detour through sour beers).

This month’s “The Session” prompt is pilsner- German, Czech, or otherwise and it’s place as “the pinnacle of the brewing craft.”

Charles Mingus, one of my favorite bass players and composers, has a phrase: “Making the simple complicated is commonplace. Making the complicated simple, awesomely simple, that’s creativity.” As I drink my pilsner- in this case it’s the KC Pils from Boulevard Brewing. There is so much going on in this simply created beer. It has honey and toasted malt aromas, a very pleasantly soft flavor, less bitterness than most American (or Czech) versions, and finishes balanced ever so slightly sweet. It’s a complex beverage even as it’s imminently quaffable.

The simplicity of ingredients contrasting the complex outcome drew me to try my hand at brewing this beer. But first I required the necessary ingredients and brewing skill.

As part of this journey I had to go through the classic American homebrewer phase: homebrew chef. It’s a delightful phase and creativity is one aspect that drew me to homebrewing. To showcase the ability to create a beer that (you think) no one has ever created before, you mash a bunch of ingredients and styles together leading to, in my case, a white IPA dry hopped with rose and hibiscus. Entered into our club’s annual competition, the Cherry Blossom Competition, my brewing partner and I somehow won first place: a coveted bag of Weyermann floor-malted bohemian pilsner malt. A judge later told me that our pink beer was given extra points in the flower-centric competition.

Pete and brewing partner Cody Gabbard with the 2013 DC blue ribbon
Pete and brewing partner Cody Gabbard with the 2013 DC blue ribbon

After many more wild and crazy batches involving chocolate-raisin pie clone beers, indian curry saison, and some German multi-rest mashes, and finally a temperature controlled fridge, I was ready. The single decoction mash with Weyermann Pils, Saaz, and BoPils 2124 was a success. I toyed with temperatures, time, water profile, and the recipe just as much as my previous wild creations. When it won the Washington, DC State Fair that Summer, I felt proud of my brewing ability. It didn’t have any flowers or fruits, but I had a damn fine beer that I could call my own.

Polish Porter Celebration

Polish Porter. Is it just Porter brewed in Poland? Or is it a unique style that can be brewed anywhere? If the brewer’s intent is pure, and the right ingredients and processes are used, it can most definitely be made elsewhere. This article explores the rich history of Porter brewing in Poland and the cross-cultural ways in which beer can be used for diplomacy. This beer was brewed in March, 2016 at the District Chophouse and Brewery by Brewmaster Barrett Lauer, Assistant Brewer Rob Fink, and beer historians Michael Stein and Peter Jones. It was served there but also at the American Homebrewers Association’s Homebrew Con 2016 held in Baltimore, Maryland.

A visit from a Polish beer writer in 2013, Michał Marańda, who hailed from his nation’s capital and came to sample the beers of our nation’s capital, spurned a cross-continental correspondence which lead to our discovery (and America’s rediscovery) of a dark beer from Poland.

1847 Polish Porter
1847 Polish Porter, Image provided by Michał Marańda at

Porter brewing in Warsaw has occurred for over 150 years, with the first known Porter ad dating to 1847. As you can see from the ad, there is English in the copy exclaiming Polish Porter as “Extra Double Stout” a product with a rich history in England. Essentially, Polish Porter was being marketed as an English product and rightfully so as it was brewed in the English tradition, a beer fermented with ale – not lager – yeast..

1877 Polish Porter
1877 Polish Porter, Image provided by Michał Marańda at

The following ad, from 30 years later in 1877, advertises Porter brewed in the Bavarian style, a Bock beer, also March beer. This Porter was brewed in the Marzen, or March beer, style, indicating that it is a lager.

Over the course of 30 years we see Polish Porter marketed as an English-style product and then as a Bavarian-style product. This changing is not unique to Poland or Porter. Over time beers that are sold as the same thing by name often experience recipe changes–be they ingredient, process, or marketing based. The etymological study of beer styles is a fascinating one with both the 1847 and 1877 ads for Polish Porter appealing to a foreign product by a foreign brewing nation, despite both being produced in Warsaw at the same brewery.

In early correspondence with Michał Marańda in late 2015, inquiring about the production of Polish Porter, he responded “we have an original recipe for famous Warsaw Baltic porter. It’s from 2003, one year before closing the Warsaw brewery” of course the difficulty is that the recipe and all of the means of production were documented in Polish. Their document, which loosely translates to “Instructions for the Technological Production of Dark Strong Beer” was instrumental in designing this recipe. And it certainly helped that a dedicated group of Polish beer historians have taken to collecting information on about 250 beers from the Krakow and Mazowsze regions of Poland over the last 150 years.

As any brewer considers brewing a historic beer, the question of historical accuracy comes to mind. This can take on many shapes and forms, but I have always felt that a brewer’s intent should be considered when brewing any beer from centuries past. The malts and hops used in the original may no longer be available to a modern brewer. But if the historic brewer’s intent was to make a clean, delicious, dark-lager in the Porter style of the time, that intent can be replicated.

Using the example of hops, we didn’t use Marynka hops as the recipe specifies. But we did use Junga hops, which have the Marynka hop as a parent. As we achieved brewing a beer with 100% Polish hops my itch of historical authenticity was scratched. Additionally another site of a Polish homebrewer stated that while Marynka or Sibyl were good bittering hops, hops are not the main role in the style and her advice loosely translated to “so you might as well check the other varieties.” And check we did. Neither Lost Lagers nor any brewery in Washington, D.C., to our knowledge, had ever used Junga hops before.

Sphinx Stout exported to Brooklyn, courtesy of Grzegorz Berlinski,
Sphinx Stout exported to Brooklyn, courtesy of Grzegorz Berlinski,

Since the brewing of this beer it has come to our attention that this beer was actually exported from Poland to the United States. We are uncertain of the exact date this bottle of “Sphinx Stout” was brewed. But based on the dates of 1933, when Prohibition was repealed, and 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland, we feel confident that this beer was exported in that six-year span. Uncertain if anyone alive remembers this beer, our desire to re-introduce America to a beer we believed was true to the brewers’ original intent: to make a clean, delicious, dark lager in the Polish style.

Celebrating Polish Constitution Day with a Lost Lager at the Polish Ambassador’s Residence. From Left: Barrett Lauer, Whitney Jones, Ambassador Ryszard Schnepf, Peter Jones, Michael Stein, and Polish Embassy Senior Adviser Artur Orkisz

Given the cross-cultural nature of beer, we wanted to play to our pride in America as a front-runner of historic and innovative brewing. Brewmaster for the District Chophouse and Brewery, Barrett Lauer, seemed like a natural fit given his passion for brewing clean, delicious beer, not to mention that he himself is of Polish descent. Equipped with the knowledge given to us by several Polish beer writers, homebrewers, and historians all interested in preserving the historic status of Polish Porter, we knew we stood on the shoulders of giants.

Beyond our wildest dreams, true Polish-American diplomacy was done when the beer was served at the residence of  Ryszard Schnepf’s, the Polish Ambassador, for Polish Constitution Day.

Just like the United States’ relationship with Poland, Polish Porter is a relationship between brewer and drinker that oppressive regimes could not stomp out. When the Warsaw Brewery opened in 1846, three Polish men, Blazej Haberbusch, Konstanty Schiele, and Henry Klawe became the owners. On some level (though the extent is undocumented) the brewery continued to operate in Nazi occupied Poland. In 1946, the brewery became nationalized and in 2001, the Austrian firm Brau Union AG purchased the brewery. In 2004, Brau Union AG was absorbed by Heineken NV. Shortly thereafter, the brewery ceased operations and 250 people were no longer employed. But despite the ups and downs of Nazism, Communism, and a shuttering from one of the world’s largest breweries, Polish Porter is a style that will live on.

Beer is special because it can foster cross-cultural relationships. This particular beer is also special because of it’s rich and unique history. Unbeknownst to us at the time of brewing, Polish Porter had actually been exported to America prior to World War II, it was labeled “Stout” and we know from the label that it was imported to New York.

We truly believe that the richness of history is reflected in the culture, brewing, and marketing of beer throughout the centuries. We strongly encourage homebrewers and independent brewers alike to investigate some of the beers that have been forgotten in the United States. Below you will find our recipe for recreating Polish Porter. Inherent in the article is a call to all brewers (big and small) to recreate some historic beer and please contact us should you have any questions.




Here is Frank Clark, master of historic foodways at Colonial Williamsburg foundation, making his proprietary sugar and turning it Porter color.
Here is Frank Clark, master of historic foodways at Colonial Williamsburg foundation, making his proprietary sugar and turning it Porter color.

If you’re attending the American Homebrewers Assoication’s 38th Annual National Homebrew Conference, Homebrewcon for short, come see us on Saturday, June 11, at the Baltimore Convention Center, rooms 318-323 at 10:15AM. Our talk is titled The Dark Ages: Baltic, Munich or Kulmbach? we’ll be pouring two Lost Lagers, Polish Porter, and Kulmbacher Dark Lager. More on those lagers in a separate post.

Of great import to those interested in history, historical beer and beer culture, are talks by beer history colleagues Frank Clark and Travis Rupp. Mike first met these amazing individuals in beer at the conference Frank hosted in Colonial Williamsburg in March, Ale Through the Ages.
You can see Frank present Welcome to the Dark Side! The Evolution of Porter at the Baltimore Convention Center onFriday, June 10 at 11:30 a.m. in seminar room 301-303.You can see Travis, who is a Professor at University of Colorado at Boulder and Special Projects and Beer Archaeologist at Avery Brewing Company, also in Boulder, Colorado. present Ancient Beer Brewing in the World of Wine: Bronze Age Greece through Alexander the Great Saturday, June 11 at 11:30 am – 12:30 pm. This is the time slot right after our presentation so you can be sure to catch us there at Travis’ presentation once we wrap.
In recent historical memory is the first conference the American Homebrewers Association’s held in Baltimore, in 1995. For an excellent read and recall of that conference, the beer brewed for it and a nice round up check out Tom Cizauskas’ post here.

1847 Polish Porter

Chophouse Mash Tun
Peter Jones and Barrett Lauer mashing in at the Chophouse’s second floor brewhouse.

We recently had the great fortune of being able to re-imagine an iconic Baltic Porter with the amazing brewers at District Chophouse, Barrett Lauer and Rob Fink. The United Warsaw Brewery’s Baltic Porter was first mentioned in newspaper advertisements in 1847 and has been beloved ever since. The Brewery, like many, was destroyed during World War II. In 1950, it was rebuilt and continued to brew Piwo “Królewskie Porter” on a small scale until it closed in 2004. Besides its ardent Polish fanbase, the dark lager (Baltic Porters are made with lager yeast unlike most British or American Porters which are commonly made with English or American ale yeast) won numerous Polish and international beer awards.

Mike was first inspired to research this beer after a chance meeting with a Polish beer blogger, Michal Maranda, from Warsaw, who visited and reviewed several of the District’s fine establishments in 2013. After corresponding overseas, researching, and a little help with translating Polish to English, we reached out to Barrett and the Chophouse team. The beer turned out wonderfully with a smooth, medium-dry finish and notes of chocolate, lightly roasted coffee with a hint of toasted pumpernickel.

Chophouse Mash tun with carafa malt
Mike Stein, reviewing the mash post-carafa addition

Though the taste is complex, the grist was simple, consisting of only 3 malts: Pale, Munich, and Carafa. With Barrett’s suggestion we sprinkled the Weyermann Carafa malt at the end of the mash to encourage it’s darker color without introducing as much astringency. Polish Junga hops in the bittering and final additions completed the royal beer. It will be served at the Chophouse through Tuesday, May 10. After that, look for it at special tastings including our lecture at the 2016 National Homebrewing Conference in Baltimore.

Update: Polish Porter was also featured in the April/May 2016 issue of Mid-Atlantic Brewing News! For more on this beer, also see our post reprising some of the Homebrewcon lecture.


Peter Jones, checking the gravity with a refractometer
Beautiful wort


Cider Tasting at the Hill Center

On November 6th, Mike Stein led a guided tasting of several delicious ciders from Pipetown Traders, paired with gourmet popcorn from Capitol Kettle Corn at the Hill Center near Barracks Row. Participants enjoyed the unique pairings and Mike’s commentary on the different styles, traditions, and producers of cider. The event was hosted by Drinky Events – who also provided many of the photographs. You can learn more about Drinky Events and their future activities on their Facebook Page. Follow our twitter account for future events featuring Lost Lagers.