Last week, multimedia reporter Martin Austermuhle covered a fascinating development on a Capitol Hill ‘Shotgun House’ which was built around 1850. The article is a quick read and beer is not the central focus but it’s worth excavating the article. We wanted to try to put the information from the article into the context of DC beer in the mid 19th and early 20th Centuries. The article states, in a caption, “the team of archaeologists found a variety of beer bottles, including a Schlitz bottle from 1911 and an ale bottle” supposedly from the 1850s. Though no mention is made of the provenance of the bottle or how that was determined.
Excavation of the historic residence was spearheaded by Ruth Trocolli who is the official D.C. archaeologist. Trocolli has traced back the house’s earliest resident as German immigrant Ernst Tungel, who purchased it in 1853. The house remained in the family for the next 40 years. When Tungel bought the house in 1853, brewing in DC was 62 years old. Andrew Wales and his wife Margaret, DC’s first commercial brewer, set up shop in 1791. Wales’ brewery was located in Alexandria, which was incorporated into the District in 1791.
Moving right along we ask you to ponder the years of 1853-1893. These were boom times for DC and DC beer. But they were also boom times for the nation and not necessarily in the sense of a bullish market. 1853 was eight years before the start of the civil war, and lest we forget a massive number of immigrants made up the union army: 177,000 German born and 144,000 born in Ireland according to thesesources. More than a third of the city’s inhabitants today.
Mr. Tungel was German born and by the time Mr. Tungel’s property purchase turned 17, in 1870, Washington DC had 13 breweries. More than it has today.
The quote that drew us in was Trocolli’s discussion of the house in its place and time:
“We’re finding out about German immigrant community that sort of flew under the radar. They had a brewery down the street, they were buying and selling property to and from each other, and they had their own institutions. This was the fringe of the city, it was still the country at the time, there were farms nearby. And we really don’t know much about this community,” Trocolli said.
It is unclear from the article which year or which brewery Trocolli is talking about. But to say there was “a brewery down the street” is irrefutable. But perhaps a more accurate statement would be ‘there were breweries all over town’ or ‘many streets led to breweries.’
It is difficult to find record but we know from Garrett Peck’s Capital Beer that Beckert’s Garden, a beer garden which also had a small brewery, stood on Fourteenth Street, NE between D & E Streets, SE from 1850-1859. This is likely the one Trocolli is referring to.
Various owners brewed on the property up until its last iteration when it closed as the National Capital Brewing Co. in 1917. While Beckert’s name has largely faded from the history books, he is potentially the first lager beer brewer in Washington DC, and this is a BIG DEAL to brewers, cultural historians, immigration historians, German/American ethnographers, and any other person who believes the study of beer history and beer culture should be taken seriously.
Further west was the Island Brewery which lasted until 1858 at Maine Avenue between 4-1/2 and Sixth Streets, SW.
Another brewery not quite two miles to the north at what is today Stuart-Hobson Middle School. It started as the Juenemann Brewery and lasted from 1858-1863. It then became the Mount Vernon Lager Beer Brewery from 1863-to 1886, it was Albert Carry’s Brewery until 1889, and then finally the Washington Brewery from 1889 to 1917.
You’ll notice that many of these breweries closed in 1917. This was the year that prohibition was enacted in DC. Ask a dozen historians why prohibition happened and you might get a dozen answers. But we believe the following: xenophobia and the entrance of the US in WWI helped quash much of the beer drinking culture, both customs and regulations, prior to prohibition. In the easy-to-imagine scenarios, many Americans feared Germans. Other xenophobic displays included mobs who “harassed anyone who opposed the war, especially those of German stock, but also socialists, pacifists, and conscientious objectors.” Though she may call herself dubious in the role of expert, we have to agree with Dr. J. Nikol Beckham that prohibition was always racialized.
Looking back at the ridiculousness of the temperance movement, we cede that the prohibitionists did get one assertion right: people in the early 20th Century loved to drink beer.
So much so that in 1915, according to source material, Washington, DC, brewed 169,973 barrels. According to another source this large quantity was brewed by only four breweries. And nearly all of it lager. Only one brewer is listed as making ale, and the owner of that brewery was a German immigrant no less! 1915’s number, 169,973 barrels, makes 2015’s number seem insignificant. 29,727 barrels were brewed in 2015. A quick bit of math shows that the 1915 brewers made 140,246 barrels more than DC’s modern day brewers.
It is unclear if the 1915 numbers include massive out-of-town breweries like Schlitz who were sending beer into the District to be bottled for District consumption. One bottling agent for Schlitz was Samuel C. Palmer.
Mike Cianciosi is a font of knowledge and has a great site which gives input as to what Palmer was bottling, amongst other things, cider, Belfast Ginger Ale, and Jos. Schlitz Brewing Co.’s Milwaukee Lager Beer.
Perhaps if the massive nationally-shipping breweries numbers were taken out it would look like a more fair fight between DC’s brewers in 1915 and 2015. But, the following ad states “Jos. Schlitz Brewing Co. 3d & Randolph Place, N.E. Washington, D.C” yet there’s no evidence that an actual brewery which produced Schlitz’ lager in DC existed. It was most likely a bottling plant. Still, it is important to remember the massive influence lager beer has had, and fortunately continues to have, in our nation’s capitol.
Friends of ours have recently opened DC’s first post-prohibition winery, ANXO, and they have opened with a great reception and to much fanfare. Their wine is not from grapes but from apples. They are also DC’s first post-prohibition cidery. Cider is classified as wine by the Tax and Trade Bureau.
The distinction of first post-prohibition winery is an important one as a century earlier a winery in DC won international acclaim for two of their wines, Claret and Port.
Polish Porter. Is it just Porter brewed in Poland? Or is it a unique style that can be brewed anywhere? If the brewer’s intent is pure, and the right ingredients and processes are used, it can most definitely be made elsewhere. This article explores the rich history of Porter brewing in Poland and the cross-cultural ways in which beer can be used for diplomacy. This beer was brewed in March, 2016 at the District Chophouse and Brewery by Brewmaster Barrett Lauer, Assistant Brewer Rob Fink, and beer historians Michael Stein and Peter Jones. It was served there but also at the American Homebrewers Association’s Homebrew Con 2016 held in Baltimore, Maryland.
A visit from a Polish beer writer in 2013, Michał Marańda, who hailed from his nation’s capital and came to sample the beers of our nation’s capital, spurned a cross-continental correspondence which lead to our discovery (and America’s rediscovery) of a dark beer from Poland.
Porter brewing in Warsaw has occurred for over 150 years, with the first known Porter ad dating to 1847. As you can see from the ad, there is English in the copy exclaiming Polish Porter as “Extra Double Stout” a product with a rich history in England. Essentially, Polish Porter was being marketed as an English product and rightfully so as it was brewed in the English tradition, a beer fermented with ale – not lager – yeast..
The following ad, from 30 years later in 1877, advertises Porter brewed in the Bavarian style, a Bock beer, also March beer. This Porter was brewed in the Marzen, or March beer, style, indicating that it is a lager.
Over the course of 30 years we see Polish Porter marketed as an English-style product and then as a Bavarian-style product. This changing is not unique to Poland or Porter. Over time beers that are sold as the same thing by name often experience recipe changes–be they ingredient, process, or marketing based. The etymological study of beer styles is a fascinating one with both the 1847 and 1877 ads for Polish Porter appealing to a foreign product by a foreign brewing nation, despite both being produced in Warsaw at the same brewery.
In early correspondence with Michał Marańda in late 2015, inquiring about the production of Polish Porter, he responded “we have an original recipe for famous Warsaw Baltic porter. It’s from 2003, one year before closing the Warsaw brewery” of course the difficulty is that the recipe and all of the means of production were documented in Polish. Their document, which loosely translates to “Instructions for the Technological Production of Dark Strong Beer” was instrumental in designing this recipe. And it certainly helped that a dedicated group of Polish beer historians have taken to collecting information on about 250 beers from the Krakow and Mazowsze regions of Poland over the last 150 years.
As any brewer considers brewing a historic beer, the question of historical accuracy comes to mind. This can take on many shapes and forms, but I have always felt that a brewer’s intent should be considered when brewing any beer from centuries past. The malts and hops used in the original may no longer be available to a modern brewer. But if the historic brewer’s intent was to make a clean, delicious, dark-lager in the Porter style of the time, that intent can be replicated.
Using the example of hops, we didn’t use Marynka hops as the recipe specifies. But we did use Junga hops, which have the Marynka hop as a parent. As we achieved brewing a beer with 100% Polish hops my itch of historical authenticity was scratched. Additionally another site of a Polish homebrewer stated that while Marynka or Sibyl were good bittering hops, hops are not the main role in the style and her advice loosely translated to “so you might as well check the other varieties.” And check we did. Neither Lost Lagers nor any brewery in Washington, D.C., to our knowledge, had ever used Junga hops before.
Since the brewing of this beer it has come to our attention that this beer was actually exported from Poland to the United States. We are uncertain of the exact date this bottle of “Sphinx Stout” was brewed. But based on the dates of 1933, when Prohibition was repealed, and 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland, we feel confident that this beer was exported in that six-year span. Uncertain if anyone alive remembers this beer, our desire to re-introduce America to a beer we believed was true to the brewers’ original intent: to make a clean, delicious, dark lager in the Polish style.
Given the cross-cultural nature of beer, we wanted to play to our pride in America as a front-runner of historic and innovative brewing. Brewmaster for the District Chophouse and Brewery, Barrett Lauer, seemed like a natural fit given his passion for brewing clean, delicious beer, not to mention that he himself is of Polish descent. Equipped with the knowledge given to us by several Polish beer writers, homebrewers, and historians all interested in preserving the historic status of Polish Porter, we knew we stood on the shoulders of giants.
Beyond our wildest dreams, true Polish-American diplomacy was done when the beer was served at the residence of Ryszard Schnepf’s, the Polish Ambassador, for Polish Constitution Day.
Just like the United States’ relationship with Poland, Polish Porter is a relationship between brewer and drinker that oppressive regimes could not stomp out. When the Warsaw Brewery opened in 1846, three Polish men, Blazej Haberbusch, Konstanty Schiele, and Henry Klawe became the owners. On some level (though the extent is undocumented) the brewery continued to operate in Nazi occupied Poland. In 1946, the brewery became nationalized and in 2001, the Austrian firm Brau Union AG purchased the brewery. In 2004, Brau Union AG was absorbed by Heineken NV. Shortly thereafter, the brewery ceased operations and 250 people were no longer employed. But despite the ups and downs of Nazism, Communism, and a shuttering from one of the world’s largest breweries, Polish Porter is a style that will live on.
Beer is special because it can foster cross-cultural relationships. This particular beer is also special because of it’s rich and unique history. Unbeknownst to us at the time of brewing, Polish Porter had actually been exported to America prior to World War II, it was labeled “Stout” and we know from the label that it was imported to New York.
We truly believe that the richness of history is reflected in the culture, brewing, and marketing of beer throughout the centuries. We strongly encourage homebrewers and independent brewers alike to investigate some of the beers that have been forgotten in the United States. Below you will find our recipe for recreating Polish Porter. Inherent in the article is a call to all brewers (big and small) to recreate some historic beer and please contact us should you have any questions.
If you’re attending the American Homebrewers Assoication’s 38th Annual National Homebrew Conference, Homebrewcon for short, come see us on Saturday, June 11, at the Baltimore Convention Center, rooms 318-323 at 10:15AM. Our talk is titled The Dark Ages: Baltic, Munich or Kulmbach? we’ll be pouring two Lost Lagers, Polish Porter, and Kulmbacher Dark Lager. More on those lagers in a separate post.
You can see Frank present Welcome to the Dark Side! The Evolution of Porter at the Baltimore Convention Center onFriday, June 10 at 11:30 a.m. in seminar room 301-303.You can see Travis, who is a Professor at University of Colorado at Boulder and Special Projects and Beer Archaeologist at Avery Brewing Company, also in Boulder, Colorado. present Ancient Beer Brewing in the World of Wine: Bronze Age Greece through Alexander the Great Saturday, June 11 at 11:30 am – 12:30 pm. This is the time slot right after our presentation so you can be sure to catch us there at Travis’ presentation once we wrap.
In recent historical memory is the first conference the American Homebrewers Association’s held in Baltimore, in 1995. For an excellent read and recall of that conference, the beer brewed for it and a nice round up check out Tom Cizauskas’ post here.
We recently had the great fortune of being able to re-imagine an iconic Baltic Porter with the amazing brewers at District Chophouse, Barrett Lauer and Rob Fink. The United Warsaw Brewery’s Baltic Porter was first mentioned in newspaper advertisements in 1847 and has been beloved ever since. The Brewery, like many, was destroyed during World War II. In 1950, it was rebuilt and continued to brew Piwo “Królewskie Porter” on a small scale until it closed in 2004. Besides its ardent Polish fanbase, the dark lager (Baltic Porters are made with lager yeast unlike most British or American Porters which are commonly made with English or American ale yeast) won numerous Polish and international beer awards.
Mike was first inspired to research this beer after a chance meeting with a Polish beer blogger, Michal Maranda, from Warsaw, who visited and reviewed several of the District’s fine establishments in 2013. After corresponding overseas, researching, and a little help with translating Polish to English, we reached out to Barrett and the Chophouse team. The beer turned out wonderfully with a smooth, medium-dry finish and notes of chocolate, lightly roasted coffee with a hint of toasted pumpernickel.
Though the taste is complex, the grist was simple, consisting of only 3 malts: Pale, Munich, and Carafa. With Barrett’s suggestion we sprinkled the Weyermann Carafa malt at the end of the mash to encourage it’s darker color without introducing as much astringency. Polish Junga hops in the bittering and final additions completed the royal beer. It will be served at the Chophouse through Tuesday, May 10. After that, look for it at special tastings including our lecture at the 2016 National Homebrewing Conference in Baltimore.
Update: Polish Porter was also featured in the April/May 2016 issue of Mid-Atlantic Brewing News! For more on this beer, also see our post reprising some of the Homebrewcon lecture.
For our newest beer, Colonial Panic we teamed up with the good folks of Pen Druid Brewing Company located in beautiful Sperryville, Virginia. The upcoming release of Colonial Panic will take place at the Dumbarton House, in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., on Wednesday, May 25, 2016 from 7:00-9:00 PM. Tickets can be purchased here.
The composition of this beer is similar to what George Washington would have imbibed during his lifetime. American beer from about 5 miles away from the town of Washington, Virginia, the first town George ever surveyed. This beer features molasses (as is one of his key ingredients in his 1757 recipe for small beer) as a great source of color and contributes a dryness to the mouthfeel. The sorghum molasses contributes a complexity that was common in 18th Century Porters. Comprising the beer’s grist is pale malt and oat malt, malted just up the path from the brewery, by the Copper Fox Distillery’s malt house. The beer was hopped with Maryland’s first certified organic hop grower, Organarchy, in Cumberland, Maryland, a Cascade variety from the 2015 harvest. Finally, the beer was fermented with what Pen Druid calls it’s “own cocktail of wild yeasts and bacteria from the Virginia Piedmont reflecting the terroir of Rappahannock.”
It is no secret that the first President’s love of beer focused largely on Porter. As is relayed by Mount Vernon’s Encyclopedia “George Washington is known to have purchased large quantities of beer and porter before the Revolution both from England and within America” this may or may not surprise you. Though the statement, “[d]uring the eighteenth century, a number of well-known English breweries were founded” is perhaps an understatement as England was the brewing epicenter of the world and many brewing nations lacked the scientific and technical prowess that England had.
Today, the United States is the epicenter of brewing innovation and many nations are looking to us to see what is hot and cool within the realm of possibility within the world of brewing. It is our hope that you will join us on May 25th and try our porter for the first (and only!) time it will be poured in Washington, DC.
On November 6th, Mike Stein led a guided tasting of several delicious ciders from Pipetown Traders, paired with gourmet popcorn from Capitol Kettle Corn at the Hill Center near Barracks Row. Participants enjoyed the unique pairings and Mike’s commentary on the different styles, traditions, and producers of cider. The event was hosted by Drinky Events – who also provided many of the photographs. You can learn more about Drinky Events and their future activities on their Facebook Page. Follow our twitter account for future events featuring Lost Lagers.
Lost Lagers (Mike and Pete) will be speaking on October 1, 2015 at the Takoma Park Community Center. Come here us discuss how beer history fits into the overall history of Washington DC. We’ll also speak about our process for researching historic recipes. For more information go to the Takoma Park Arts website.